Rising Dragon Souring Banana International Conference 2009

Archive of papers from: Rising Dragons, Soaring Bananas International Conference (2009)

Title:In Search of Chineseness: The Choice of the Ho Sisters
Author:Louella Cheng
Abstract:(With co-author Victor Zheng)
Identifying the family of Sir Robert Ho Tung (1862-1956) as a distinct entrepreneurial family in Hong Kong, this paper explores how the articulations of Chineseness by his two daughters - Irene and Florence -are related both to British colonial ideology and the emergence of different Chinese nationalistic discourses. Separated by an age difference of 11 years, Irene (1904-2007) and Florence (1915- ) received similar educations in their early years, but the two sisters followed very different life paths. Irene became an outstanding career woman and married late. Florence was married at the age of 17 and confined her role to the family setting.
The life-stories of Florence Yeo and Irene Cheng question the meaning of Chineseness--both from the perspective of the Eurasians themselves and from the various perspectives found within the Chinese community. The social experience of the Ho daughters explains to what extent Eurasians were accepted by other Chinese as truly Chinese, and to what extent they were considered foreign. Why did the Chinese part of the Ho family traditions appear to be the more dominant influence in shaping their members' personal identities? This paper suggests that the problem of identification reveals a local pattern that is often ideological and political.
This paper relates the question of social identity to the notion of modernity and nationalism through a review of liminality in the socio-political and cultural identification in the Hong Kong community. Firstly, it investigates the social drives and the cultural-historical currents which induced Eurasian women to identify themselves as Chinese. Secondly, it examines to what extent the Chineseness revealed in this social identity was characterised by modern ideology and the particular socio-historical landscape?
CV:Dr. Louella Cheng is currently Research Officer of the Centre of Asian Studies, HKU. She is working on several writing projects. These deal with entrepreneurial family, Eurasians and with popular culture in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Her research interests include Hong Kong and Chinese culture, Modernization and Modernity, Critical theory.

Dr. Victor Zheng is currently Research Assistant Professor of the Centre of Asian Studies, HKU. His research interest includes: Chinese family enterprises and inheritance, Hong Kong history and society, social indicators and social development: Hong Kong and Macao.
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Title:From Social Outcast to Colonial ╔lite
Author:Louella Cheng
Abstract:(With co-author Wong Siu-lun)
The rise of an Eurasian entrepreneurial family in Hong Kong.

The rise of Sir Robert Ho Tung (1862-1956) and his extended family casts
considerable light on the peculiar colonial-nationalistic socio-historical background of Hong Kong from 1841. He and his brothers Kam Tong and Fook started out as "compradores" for leading foreign trading companies. As Eurasians, they were marginal social figures who needed to gain recognition from the Chinese majority and the Western elite. Their "in-between" social position gave them a choice of identities that allowed them to transcend the various socio-cultural boundaries set up by the colonizers and the local Chinese community. They choose the Chinese world, while a fourth brother (Walter Bosman) selected a British identity and preferred a professional to a business career.

The early social experiences of Sir Robert Ho Tung reflect the socio-cultural forces that drew the Eurasian towards a Chinese identity. The choice made by Walter Bosman illustrates the social dichotomies and the many ambivalent undercurrents in early colonial community. Their individual ambitions and preferences illuminate the socio-cultural environment (i.e. the obstacles and the constraints) of early Hong Kong society.

The survival strategies of this early Eurasian family in Hong Kong demonstrate the inter-connections between cultural identity, family structure and succession. This paper deals with two interrelated issues. Firstly, it looks at how the prevailing socio-political ideology shaped distinctive characteristics of its Eurasian members and their family enterprises. Secondly, it explores how the Deleuzian concept of the "rhizomic" helps to explain a family structure that extends horizontally by drawing on multiple social relationships

CV:Dr. Louella Cheng is currently Research Officer of the Centre of Asian Studies, HKU. She is working on several writing projects. These deal with entrepreneurial family, Eurasians and with popular culture in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Her research interests include Hong Kong and Chinese culture, Modernization and Modernity, Critical theory.

Professor Wong Siu-lun is currently Professor and Director of the Centre of Asian Studies. His research interest includes: Chinese entrepreneurship and culture, migration and Chinese diaspora, social indicators and social development: Hong Kong and Macao.

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Title:Evolution of Chinese Students in Korea and Their Impact on Chinese Community
Author:Young-Rok Cheong
Abstract:(with Lee, Hwa-seung as co - author)
Currently Chinese students in Korea compose one of the largest overseas student community in Korea. In this paper, we would like to highlight the evolution of Chinese students in Korea and their adaptation to Korean society.
They are working as crucial bridge of businesses between two countries and it is expected that their role will be enhanced with time. And, in the future, they will work as major forces renovating Chinese community in Korea, which is evaluated underdeveloped by diversified reasons. As such, we hope to touch on Chinese students in Korea as a whole and more specifically survey them. In this process, we will divide students into two groups; one group of students near Seoul and another group away from Seoul. Based on this, we will scrutinize their differences of attitude and similarities. For this, we will interview them to evaluate in more scientific way. This time, we will do our best in analyzing current facts about Chinese students in Korea as potential new arrival of overseas Chinese in Korea. If it is possible, further, we may derive ways of leveling up of Chinese community by Chinese students in Korea.

Title:Chinese New Migrants in Cambodia: A Preliminary Study
Author:James K Chin
Abstract:The ethnic Chinese in Cambodia formed the country's largest ethnic minority with 60 percent of the Chinese are urban residents engaged mainly in commerce and the other 40 percent in the rural area. Since the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime, the once stricken or even perished Chinese community under Pol Pot has been rejuvenating with large number of new Chinese migrant influx from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Companies set up by mainland Chinese migrants can now be seen almost in every sector of the Cambodian economy, particularly in Phnom Penh. Chinese entrepreneurs own, operate, and built factories, banks, hospitals, restaurants, hotels, discos and casinos in the country. In the meantime, a great many of Chinese skilled labours have been recruited to work in the garment factories owned by entrepreneurs from Taiwan, Hong Kong and mainland China. Even the triads, mafia and prostitutes from Taiwan and the Chinese mainland have managed to settle down in Cambodia.
Why suddenly did large number of new Chinese migrants move into Cambodia over the past two decades from the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan? What are the social, cultural and historical factors, if there is any, which can be advanced to account for the new Chinese emigration to Cambodia? What are their major businesses in Cambodia? How do Chinese private entrepreneurs achieve success in a transnational context? How could we identify and mapping out the ethnic Chinese business networks in Cambodia? And what are the main features of Chinese new migrant community in the country? Based on the fieldwork conducted in Cambodia, this preliminary study tries to re-conceptualise the subject against the background of the increasingly rise of China in the international community and the significant Chinese globalization processes, examining the dynamics of Chinese business migrants in the less developed country and their connections with both homeland and other ethnic Chinese communities overseas.

CV:Dr James K. Chin is a researcher at Centre of Asian Studies, the University of Hong Kong. His research interests include the Chinese migration and diaspora, China-ASEAN relations and the history of maritime Asia.

Title:Jewish Projections on a Chinese Screen
Author:Charles Coppel
Abstract:Maurice Freedman once wrote (1959) that it would make an 'interesting and instructive study' to find 'what things are common and not common to Jews outside Israel and overseas Chinese'. Drawing parallels between the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia and the Jews in Europe has a venerable pedigree but its outcome has not always been interesting or instructive. Negative stereotyping of Southeast Asian Chinese in tropes coloured by European antisemitism dates back to the earliest period of colonialism in the region. These were transferred into indigenous Southeast Asian nationalist discourses in the early twentieth century. Western sociological literature is rife with references to such categories as 'entrepreneurial minorities', 'pariah' capitalists or entrepreneurs, 'trading minorities', 'middleman minorities', and 'essential outsiders'. The parallels have been drawn for various purposes, for example to explain the role of the stranger in the rise of capitalism, the economic success of an ethnic minority, and the antagonism shown towards members of the minority in periods of stress.
In this paper I want to pursue other 'Jewish projections on a Chinese screen' which are less strongly represented in the scholarly and popular literature. The parallels referred to above tend to be generalizing and essentialist; mine will be more individual and disputational. Jewish and Chinese immigrants have settled among a variety of other peoples. Through the experience of settlement and the politics of their situation, they and their descendants have made adjustments and accommodations to their environment which have in turn been criticised by more recent immigrants. My subject is the politics of identity, and my examples will be drawn from the cases of the Chinese in Indonesia and the Jews in Australia.
CV:Charles Coppel is a Principal Fellow in the School of Historical Studies at the University of Melbourne. He has been researching the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia for more than four decades. His publications include Indonesian Chinese in Crisis (1983), Studying Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia (2002) and the edited volume Violent Conflicts in Indonesia: Analysis, representation, resolution (2006).


Title:A Silent Invasion? Chinese Immigrants and Local Interaction in Equatorial Guinea
Author:Mario Esteban
Abstract:Much of the attention on the increasing interaction between China and Africa has been devoted to the official dimension, putting the emphasis in inter-States relations. Although States are central actors in this relationship, the informal dimension should not be forgotten, since the number of Chinese immigrants in Africa and of African immigrants in China is increasing rapidly.
Grounded on the field research of the author in Equatorial Guinea this paper aims to provide a nuanced analysis of the impact on the local population of the fast mounting non-officially sanctioned Chinese presence in that African country, describing how Chinese immigrants' participation in various economic activities (such as informal trade, farming, construction, health sector, etc) is assessed by different sectors of the Equatoguinean population. This paper also tackles other issues such as how the official cooperation between China and Africa favours Chinese migration to that continent and the formation of new clichés about Chinese immigrants in Equatorial Guinea.

CV:Dr. Mario Esteban is Assistant Professor of Chinese Studies and Member of the Centre for East Asian Studies at the Autonomous University of Madrid and Coordinator of the Asia-Pacific section of the Observatory of Spain's Foreign Policy at the Fundacion Alternativas. He is also a board member of the European Association of Taiwan Studies. He has collaborated as external expert with the European Commission and the European Parliament. He has published extensively on Chinese and Taiwanese foreign and domestic politics.
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Title:'Coolie' labour compared: Indian and Chinese indentured schemes in South Africa
Author:Karen L Harris
Abstract:This paper proposes to compare the Indian and Chinese indentured labour systems introduced into colonial South Africa in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Between 1860 and 1911 the Colony of Natal imported 152 184 Indians to work primarily on the sugar plantations, and between 1904 to 1910 the Transvaal Colony reverted to the importation of 63 695 Chinese to work exclusively on the gold mines. While both the Indian and Chinese labour schemes have received considerable academic attention in their own right, relatively little work has been done in terms of a comparative dimension. This may partly be ascribed to the inherent differences between the two schemes, despite the fact that the British authorities orchestrated both. It will be shown that to a large extent the experiences of the Indian labour system informed and determined the nature of the Chinese scheme. It will however be argued that the impact of the one upon the other went far beyond the legal parameters of the indenture contracts and regulations, having ramifications which swept across the broader societal domain and which impacted on the very different place and perception of these two minorities in subsequent South African history.
CV:Prof Karen L Harris is a full professor in the Department of Historical and Heritage Studies at the University of Pretoria; she is also the director of the University Archives. She holds a doctorate in history and specialises in the field of overseas Chinese studies in South Africa. She is an executive board member of the International Society for the Study of Chinese Overseas (ISSCO) and convened the first ISSCO conference held in Africa in 2006. (karen.harris@up.ac.za)

Title:Exclusion reveals inclusion: Chinese in the late 19th century colonial Cape
Author:Karen L Harris
Abstract:The promulgation of the Chinese Exclusion Act in the Cape Colony in September 1904 ranks the Chinese as one of the first racially identified groups to be singled out and discriminated against in such a blatant manner in South African history. As a result of this legislation, which remained on the statute books until 1933, Chinese immigration was terminated and the growth of their community stunted well beyond the dissolution of the Act, not only in the Cape Colony, but also in the subsequent Union and Republic of South Africa. This paper proposes to move beyond the detrimental ramifications of this restrictive legislation and consider how the records that the Act generated present a unique window into the social place of the overseas Chinese community within early colonial Cape society. Notwithstanding the inherent problems of information recorded on official forms by biased colonial bureaucrats extracted from individuals under duress, this Act not only presents the first official census of the miniscule Chinese community within the region, but also reflects upon their origin, the positions they held and, on occasion, inadvertently uncovers their interaction and nuanced relations with the indigenous and other communities of the late nineteenth colonial Cape. Given the paucity of research material and the general discreteness of the overseas Chinese in terms of the historical record, this paper proposes to show how this Act provides insights into lesser known aspects of the history of the Chinese community within the country and in particular, the social identity of the overseas Chinese community in the colonial Cape.
CV:Prof Karen L Harris is a full professor in the Department of Historical and Heritage Studies at the University of Pretoria; she is also the director of the University Archives. She holds a doctorate in history and specialises in the field of overseas Chinese studies in South Africa. She is an executive board member of the International Society for the Study of Chinese Overseas (ISSCO) and convened the first ISSCO conference held in Africa in 2006. (karen.harris@up.ac.za)

Title:Students to Residents
Author:Elsie Ho
Abstract:Chinese International Students' Gendered Migration Intentions and Employment Experiences
International students are a key element of contemporary globalisation. In recent years, this group is increasingly recognised as a potentially valuable source of residents, and a growing number of countries have developed policies to facilitate international students to transition to work and to residence. Many families from countries in East Asia are taking advantage of these policy initiatives and are sending their children to study abroad with the intention of subsequently applying for residence and then bringing other family members to the destination.
This paper commences by examining the development of international student policies and practices in New Zealand, and recent policy initiatives giving students wider rights to work and to gain residency. It also draws on research findings from a study of 80 PRC╣ Chinese international students who came to New Zealand between 1999 and 2006. Participants were recruited from language schools, private training establishments (PTEs), secondary schools, polytechnics and universities located in Auckland, Hamilton, Rotorua and Christchurch. The paper explores the differentiation among male and female students with regard to the reasoning behind their decision to study in New Zealand, the study pathways they followed after their arrival, their immigration intentions and their employment experiences in New Zealand. The results indicate there are considerable variations in background, experience and the future plans of the Chinese students, and these results are discussed within the wider context of family strategies for maximising benefits through transnational education.

CV:Dr Elsie Ho is Senior Research Fellow at the University of Waikato's Migration Research Group, Population Studies Centre. Her research has focused on the acculturation of immigrants, refugees and international students, and has published widely on the topics of Asian transnational communities, migrant settlement, mental health and diversity issues. She was awarded Member of the NZ Order of Merit for services to migrant communities in 2007. She is currently consulting editor of the Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies and the Asian Journal of Social Psychology.

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Title:Negotiating Identity: a Comparison on Koo Chen-fu and Koo Kwan-min
Author:Clare Tsai-man Ho
Abstract:Identities are about a set of norms that regulate values and behavior. One very effective form of these norms is to present them as 'natural', such as blood, kinship, and so forth. Both 'natural' and 'artificial' metaphors are presented not only for gaining ones identity, but in fact also for other purposes on many particular occasions.
Over the past century, the Koo family of Lukang has arguably been the most influential family in Taiwan. Koo Hsien-Jung (1866-1937) was said to have advanced his business interests in Taiwan by his allegiance to the Japanese colonial government. He was even chosen to be the first Taiwanese member of the upper house of the Diet. Even so, the Koos did not change their Chinese name into a Japanese one, despite that the Japanese colonial rulers adopted an assimilation policy. Koo Hsien-jung died in 1937, and was admired as 'real Japanese'. Among Koo Hsien-Jung's five wives, one was Japanese. After the Second World War, the Nationalist government retreated to Taiwan. The Koos' previous affinities with the Japanese government had been confronted with challenges, in particular, along with the official nationalism manipulated by the Chinese Nationalist Party(KMT). The second generation of Koo Hsien-jung seems to walk on a very different path of identity formation after the end of the Japanese rule. Koo Chen-fu's passion for Peking opera could be traced back to his father's era. His excellence in both Chinese and Japanese fine culture brought him to the cutting edge to play an intermediary role among China, Taiwan and Japan. By contrast, his brother, Koo Kwan-min mixed with Japanese blood, was dubbed the Godfather of the Taiwan Independence movement.
The system of identity construction also refers to a set of reciprocal relations, in which there have to be criteria for condemning certain kinds of behavior or judgments and for approving of others. By examining the identities of two brothers, Koo Chen-fu and Koo Kwan-min, this paper aims to explore what choices and constraints these two brothers have confronted with and ended up with different path of life.

CV:HO, Tsai-man Clare is currently Post-doctoral fellow of the Centre of Asian Studies, the University of Hong Kong. Her research interest includes the globalization and its impact in Asia, and the issues of modernity in Chinese Societies.

Title:The Politics of Identity Formation- the Case of Koo Chen-fu
Author:Clare Tsai-man HO
Abstract:In what conditions do people have to make statements such as:
"In his whole life, my father never speaks Japanese".
"Koo Chen-fu grew up in a traditional Chinese family, accepting the Chinese Education, reading Chinese. "
"I am Chinese; I am Taiwanese"
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Title:Ageing in Place: Issues and Challenges for Chinese Communities
Author:Elsie Ho
Abstract:Older Chinese immigrants' concerns about becoming ill or injured are complex, and the inability to access services because of language, financial and transport barriers are some major concerns. This paper explores a range of issues facing older Chinese immigrants in New Zealand, and discusses the research findings in the wider context of the New Zealand Positive Ageing Strategy.
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Title:Transnationalism and the Reconstruction of Chinese Identity in Australia
Author:Christine Inglis
Abstract:One of the distinguishing features of Australia's Chinese population has been the increasing diversity of its origins. The original 19th century arrivals from Southern China have been supplemented after World War Two by arrivals from Southeast Asia and the Pacific followed by those from Hong Kong, Taiwan and now the increasingly dominant flows from Mainland China. The economic and political changes in China have had major implications for the nature of transnational links between Australia and China. This presentation will explore the implications of these changes for the ways in which Australian Chinese articulate and develop their sense of identity and relationship to China and how this, in turn, affects the structure and presentation of the Chinese community in Australia.
CV:Christine Inglis is Director of the Multicultural & Migrant Research Centre at the University of Centre. A sociologist, one of the major areas of her research has been concerned with Chinese migration to Australia, the Pacific and Southeast Asia. Recent projects have focussed on the migration of Chinese professionals and, also, a comparison of the patterns of transnationalism among Chinese from Hong Kong and Mainland China. She is also working on a project which compares contemporary Chinese migration and settlement in Australia and Europe

Title:'Chinese Century': Past and Present
Author:Hui Kian Kwee
Abstract:Observers have indicated that the twenty-first century would be the "Chinese Century", not less due to the fact that the People's Republic of China state is making political-economic expansion into Central Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and even parts of North America. Much less known was how historians like Leonard Blussé and Anthony Reid had in fact coined the developments in South China Sea and Southeast Asia during the eighteenth century as the "Chinese century". Unsupported by the Chinese state, people from Guangdong and Fujian provinces had ventured to Southeast Asia to do mining and cultivation activities. They settled, sometimes by tens of thousands, in the regions around today's Gulf of Thailand, west Borneo, Riau archipelago and Malay Peninsula. Although they generally secured the goodwill of authorities in these regions prior to settling down, these Chinese in fact operated like mini-states. They mobilized cultural resources in the form of deity and ancestral cults to organize themselves into self-autonomous socio-economic entities, with abilities to police group members and conduct military actions against their enemies.
This paper compares the "Chinese Century" in the eighteenth century and the present day. It discusses the similarities and differences of these two periods, paying special attention to the following: While the economic expansion overseas has been driven by a search for resources in both periods, a major difference is the central role of the state power in today's expansion compared to the earlier period. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications.

CV:Kwee Hui Kian is Assistant Professor of History at the University of Toronto, where she is also jointly appointed at the Centre for Diaspora and Transnational Studies. She obtained her BA and MA from National University of Singapore, and Ph.D. from Leiden University. Kwee has been a postdoctoral fellow at Asia Research Institute, visiting fellow at National University of Singapore, and research fellow at the Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV).

Title:Changing Chinese and Indian International Migration
Author:Wei Li
Abstract:As two largest Asian countries with long histories of civilization and international migration, China and India have remained as top migrant sending countries in the world with 35 and 20 million people living outside their country of birth respectively. The US as a major immigrant receiving country in the world has been home of many of them. As of 2006, there are 1.9 million Chinese and 1.5 million Indian immigrants living in the US, counting for the second (5.1% of total) and fourth (4.1%) largest foreign-born groups respectively. More so the rates of migration have accelerated in recent years as more than a third of all Indian- and more than a quarter Chinese-foreign born people arrived since 2000 alone. During the long history of Chinese and Indian disaporas, the US immigration policy has changed dramatically, China and India have developed at fast pace, and Chinese and Indian migrant populations have evolved with different demographic characteristics, socio-economic profiles and have changed the landscapes of the areas they settle. Essentially, Indian and Chinese migrants have shifted from 'IC labor' (indentured and contract) to the backbone of the American IC industry (integrate and circuit).
This paper will document the changing Chinese and Indian immigration to the US by tracing historical discrimination, mid-20th century transition, and contemporary position. Using US census data and immigration statistics, and ethnographic works, we will quantitatively and qualitatively compare and contrast the experiences of these two Asian migrant groups over time, and discuss the impacts of disaporas on both the US and sending countries.

CV:Wei Li received her Bachelor and Master degrees in Beijing, China; and her Ph.D. in geography at the University of Southern California in 1997. She is currently an Associate Professor at the Asian Pacific American Studies Program and School of Geographical Sciences in the Arizona State University, USA, and affiliated with School of Justice and Social Inquiry, Center for Asian Research, Center for Population Dynamics, North American Center for Transborder Studies, and Women and Gender Studies.

Title:Narratives of older Chinese New Zealanders: Constructing the hybrid self
Author:Wendy Wen Li
Abstract:This paper employs George Herbert Mead's theory of symbolic interaction to explore the construction of the hybrid self and identity among older Chinese New Zealanders. According to symbolic interactionism, the self and identity are in constant development through social interaction. In that regard, self-construction and identity development are ongoing processes. The study uses empirical data from New Zealand to demonstrate that the construction of self reflects specific sets of social and cultural situations. The paper investigates self-construction and identity development amongst a group of older Chinese immigrants. The methods of data collection and analysis are informed by a narrative approach. Initial and follow-up interviews were conducted with 34 individual participants of 22 households. The participants were currently resident in New Zealand with permanent residency or New Zealand citizenship, who were born overseas and entered New Zealand under an immigration programme, and who self-identified as Chinese and were 65 and over years of age.
This preliminary investigation demonstrates how the participants construct the hybrid self in a new country in their later life. To construct the self, the participants undergo the processes of repairing disruptive self, addressing discrepant self and developing hybrid self. When they arrive in New Zealand, they experience biography disruption and self-discrepancy given rise to immigration. Through social interaction with family, community and larger society, the participants develop tools for self-construction that leads to the development of hybrid identity. These tools include the means for establishing one's continuity across time and space, for communicating and evaluating who one is, and for reformulating a competent and confident self. The findings suggest that the participant's narrative is a quest narrative, which reframes the biography disruption and self-discrepancy as challenge.

CV:Wendy Li is a PhD candidate at the Population Studies Centre and the Department of Psychology, the University of Waikato. She is a recipient of the Top Achiever Doctoral Scholarship awarded by New Zealand Tertiary Education Committee. Wendy was a researcher and senior lecturer in a tertiary institution in China before she moved to New Zealand in 2003. She worked as a counsellor providing counselling to Asian population affected by problem gambling from 2004 to 2007. Wendy has written and co-authored a number of publications on social psychology, women studies and community psychology. Wendy has extensive involvement in organisations and agencies concerned for the welfare of immigrants. She is the founding Chairperson of the Hamilton Chinese Golden Age Society.

Title:The Past, Present and Future of the Chinese Overseas Population
Author:Peter S Li
Abstract:The population of Chinese overseas is made up of those who have settled outside of China but claim or trace an origin from China. In 2007, about 39 million ethnic Chinese settled in about 130 countries outside of mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. There are several noted demographic features regarding this population. First, the Chinese overseas population has increased steadily since the middle of the 20th century, from 11 million in 1955 to 19 million in 1980, and to 35 million in 2000. However, the growth has been uneven in different regions, with Asia experiencing the slowest average annual growth rate since 1955, and America and Europe, the fastest. Second, the differential growth rates result in a shift in the distribution of the Chinese overseas population. Asia, which accounted for over 96 per cent of the population of the Chinese overseas in the 1950s, now account for about 76 per cent. In contrast, the Chinese in America that made up about 2 per cent of the Chinese overseas population in 1955, now share 18 per cent. Third, if the present rates of growth are to be maintained, then by 2030, Asia will account for 71 per cent of the Chinese overseas population, and America, 24 per cent. Fourth, about 20 or so countries account for the vast majority of the total Chinese overseas' population, and their proportional weight has increased over time. In 1996, the top 22 countries made up about 80 per cent of the total Chinese overseas population, and by 2007, they accounted for 96 per cent. Fifth, certain historical factors and contemporary forces probably explain the uneven growth rates among the top 22 countries. The difference is essentially between multiracial societies of Asia that had a history of colonialism or neo-colonialism in which the Chinese were imported as a middleman minority and the more nascent polyethnic societies of advanced capitalist countries of the west in which Chinese of different class origins were recruited under different conditions for early industrialization and in post-industrial developments.

CV:Peter S. Li is Professor of Sociology at the University of Saskatchewan, and leader of the Economic Domain of the Prairie Metropolis Centre. His research areas are immigration, race and ethnicity, and Chinese Canadians. He has published over 70 academic papers and 11 books, including The Chinese in Canada (OUP, 1988, 1998), The Making of Post-War Canada (OUP, 1996) and Destination Canada (OUP, 2003). In 2002, he received the "Outstanding Contribution Award" from the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association for his contribution to sociology in Canada. He was president of the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association for 2004-2005. Currently, he is the Vice-President of the International Society for the Study of Chinese Overseas, and he is finishing his five-year term as the editor of the Journal of International Migration and Integration.

Title:Homeland on the Move: Return Chinese Migrants as Transnationals
Author:Sally Liangni Liu
Abstract:This paper draws on the results of my recent fieldwork in China, where I conducted 27 in-depth qualitative interviews. Interviewees are migrants who immigrated to New Zealand (NZ) from the People's Republic of China (PRC), and then returned to PRC or planned to go to a third country. This research explores their explanations/perceptions of 'home' as against their conceptualisation of identity and citizenship as residents of NZ. In order to understand the above, I investigated the motivation for the initial move to NZ, the forces driving them to return to China or step to a third country, the opportunities and challenges they faced, family arrangements and future plans. I argue that transnational movement profoundly challenges migrants' sense of 'home' and identity, and forces them to reconstitute their 'home' making. Rather than migration disrupting their sense of 'home', it can instead provide a space to renegotiate and recreate a new version of identity beyond geographical locations. Their newly acquired legal status as NZ residents/citizens is not sufficient to allow them to identify themselves as 'New Zealanders'. For many, legal citizenship does not mean a full incorporation into NZ society. Such disjuncture has implications for government policies and the theorisation of citizenship. My results suggest that economic reasons are major causes of their return to China, but family responsibilities and familiar social/cultural environment seem to contribute to their decision to return as well. More significantly, where the parents of those migrants are located has a significant effect on their sense of home and their decisions on re-location or ultimate long-term 'settlement'.
CV:Sally Liangni Liu is in her final year to finish her PhD in the School of Asian Studies, University of Auckland. After migrating to New Zealand as a new immigrant from Mainland China in 2001, she completed both her BA Honours and Masters Degrees with first-class honours. Based on her Master thesis and PhD research, she has already published some articles in international journals and a book chapter. She is a recipient of University of Auckland Doctoral Scholarship, Social Policy Evaluation and Research (SPEaR) Linkage Fund, ASIA:NZ/NZASIA postgraduate research award and ASIA:NZ Young Leaders Network Grant. Her research interest is about immigration, ethnic relation and ethnic media. She is also actively involved in organisations and community activities. She is one member of the Banana Conference organization committee and an participant in ASIA:NZ Young Leaders Network.

Title:Visually Chinese - A journey to chineseness through cast glass
Author:Susan K Louie
Abstract:I was brought up as a Chinese girl on a market garden in a predominantly Maori Community on the outskirts of Gisborne (a place called Manutuke). This life significantly influenced the way I tell my story through lead crystal glass.
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Title:New Zealand History and the "Chinese 18th Century" Paradigm.
Author:Lewis Mayo
Abstract:Historians of New Zealand generally agree that significant Maaori contact with non-Maaori began in the late 18th century, as Aotearoa-New Zealand became part of a larger global web of exchanges, including exchanges with the rest of the Pacific and with East, South and Southeast Asia. This coincides with the mid-point of what historians have begun to refer to as Southeast Asia's "Chinese 18th century", a period of economic, political and social change in the region lasting from circa 1740 to circa 1850, change stimulated by intensified exchanges with China. British colonization of Southeastern Australia and New Zealand in the period between the 1780s and the 1850s thus occurred in a time when Chinese people and Chinese systems were exerting a major influence on the wider Asian-Pacific regional structure. Developments as varied as the foundation of Singapore, the establishment of the Hawaiian and Fijian Kingdoms and an increased involvement of Aboriginal people in Northern Australia in Makassarese trade systems can arguably be traced to the effects of much stronger relationships between South China and the rest of the region in the Qianlong, Jiaqing and Daoguang reigns.

This paper seeks to situate New Zealand history (including Chinese-New Zealand history) between the 1760s and the present in the larger context of the system created during "the Chinese 18th century" and the transformation of this system in the 19th and 20th centuries. It suggests that the differing historical experiences of Chinese people in the settler colonies of Australasia and the European 19th and 20th century colonial states in Southeast Asia can be analysed within a larger set of trans-regional changes. At the same time, it suggests that complex, culturally plural middle class cities with significant ethnic Chinese populations like contemporary Auckland find some of their closest historical antecedents in 18th century Southeast Asia.
CV:Lewis Mayo studied History and Chinese at the University of Auckland, before going on to study Chinese History at Peking University, the University of Hawaii and the Australian National University. He teaches Chinese Studies at the University of Auckland. His research combines the study of the long-term history of China's borderlands, in particular the Chinese-Inner Asian contact zone, with research on the history of Asian Pacific middle class cultures and their relationship to region-wide historical changes since the 7th century CE.

Title:'Maoriland' and 'Yellow Peril'
Author:Nigel Murphy
Abstract:Discourses of race in the creation of New Zealand's national identity 1890-1914.
This paper will examine how images of Chinese and Maori during the period 1890 to 1914 helped create New Zealand's national identity. That identity was based on being racially pure, white and imperially loyal: a White New Zealand. It was also based on being an ideal and utopian society. Chinese--and other non-white people--were excluded from that identity as dangerous and threatening. But Maori did not fit comfortably into this White New Zealand identity. As non-white people they could not be 'New Zealanders' in the way white New Zealanders were. However, as indigenous peoples, they were definitely New Zealanders. While Chinese could be excluded, Maori could not. Unlike other white settler societies, which merely excluded native populations from their national identities, New Zealand, wishing to be an ideal and utopian society, sought to incorporate Maori into theirs. A special category therefore had to be created for them, and that category was 'honorary white'. This process of whitening Maori and excluding Chinese had profound effects on the shape and form that New Zealand's national identity took, both for Maori and Pakeha as well as for those - like Chinese - who did not fit into the newly-formed national identity. It also had profound effects on how relations between Maori, Pakeha, and Chinese evolved in the years since 1914. By examining this process we might understand how race relations have evolved in New Zealand and why New Zealand's identity is the way it is in 2009.

CV:Nigel Murphy is an historian with the Waitangi Tribunal. Until 2007 he was a research librarian and curator at the Alexander Turnbull Library, a position he held for more than twenty years. He has a Master of New Zealand Studies, his thesis being 'Racism and Empire: Discourses of Race and Empire in the Formation of New Zealand's National Identity 1894 -1907'. He has published and lectured widely on the history of the Chinese in New Zealand and on racism and White New Zealand. His publications include 'The Poll Tax in New Zealand: a research report' commissioned by the New Zealand Chinese Association and published in 1993, and 'Aliens at My Table: Asians as New Zealander see them' co-authored with Manying Ip and published in 2005. His most recent publication is a chapter and appendix in the 2009 collection 'The Dragon and the Taniwha: Maori and Chinese in New Zealand'.

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Title:The Yellow Peril in comparative context
Author:Jock Phillips
Abstract:The 'yellow peril' - New Zealand racial attitudes and the history of the Chinese in New Zealand.

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Title:Contempory Chinese Labour Migration to Russia: Policy & Implications
Author:Vladimir Portyakov
Abstract:Labour migration from China in the post-Soviet Russia had become a mass
phenomenon in the first half of 1990-th, but significantly decreased after the default in 1998. Since the year of 2000 it has restarted to grow rapidly following the increase of the demand for the labour force by the more and more dynamic Russian economy.
In 2000 the number of Chinese labourers working in Russia on the legal basis reached 26.2 thousand, in 2003 it amounted to 72.8 thousand, the following year it was 94.1 thousand, and in 2005 and 2006 their number increased to 160.6 thousand and 210.8 thousand people respectively. During this period their share in the total number of legally employed migrant workers in Russia increased from 12.3 to 20.2%.
The ban on the employment of foreigners in retail trade introduced in Russia on April 1st, 2007, forced the Chinese merchants either to return home or to adapt to new situation, by hiring local citizens for retail sales job or switching to other spheres of activity like construction, repair work, agriculture.
The bulk of the Chinese working in Russia (60% in the whole country and 91% in the Far East) came from the northeastern provinces of China known for its high unemployment. Perhaps that is why, despite pretty modest living conditions and low incomes, they still prefer to stay in Russia.
According to the 2007 survey conducted among 900 Chinese (half of whom stay in Moscow and the remaining part - in three cities of the Russian Far East), only 21% of respondents rated their financial circumstances as "good" or "very good", 61% regarded it as "acceptable" while 14% considered their material standing "bad" and 1% found it "very bad". On the whole the majority of the Chinese migrants consider Russia to be quite suitable area for their business activities.
At the same time the world economic crisis, that has seriously affected Russia, leads to a visible reduction of the demand for migrant workers. In the Far East there were already precedents when local businessmen refused to employ construction workers from China that had arrived upon the previously issued invitations. And in the next two years it would be difficult to expect the growth of labour immigration to Russia, including from China.

CV:PORTYAKOV Vladimir - Research Centre on Russian-Chinese Relations, Head;
Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Deputy Director; Far Eastern Affairs-A Russian Journal on China, Japan and Asia-Pacific Region - Editor-in-Chief.
Major Research Field: Contemporary China: Policy; Economy; Russian-Chinese Relations, Chinese migrants in Russia.
Born in 1947, graduated from Moscow State University (1970), Doctor of Economics (1999).
Previous position: 1999-2003 - Counselor, Embassy of Russian Federation in the PRC, Beijing.
1992-1999 - Deputy Director (China's Economy), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Moscow.
1996-2000 - Vice-president of the European Association for Chinese Studies (EACS)
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Title:Can international unity be fostered among a diverse Chinese diaspora?
Author:Anthony Pun
Abstract:(Co -authored by Daphne Lowe-Kelley)
Mass electronic communications, affordable air travel and the rise of China as a global power have been the catalysts in a renewal of interest in Chinese international organisations. Successive waves of Chinese migration to the West can be identified with the most recent wave of migrants from the Peoples Republic of China adding to the diversity of the Chinese diaspora in host Western countries. This paper examines the array of Chinese associations in Australia, followed by a discussion on how to foster unity and the formation of an international Chinese organisation.
Australia has hundreds of Chinese organisations ranging from those formed in the 19th and early 20th century to ones formed in the last 20 years. The role and nature of these groups is diverse and they are predominantly local or state-wide. Difficulties have been experienced in past attempts to unify them into a national body.
Prior to the recognition of the PRC by the Australian government in 1972, the "sojourner" attitude was already being abandoned and replaced with a desire to become Australian first and Chinese second, thereby giving hope to future descendants that Australia is the adopted country and home. A similar trend can also be seen in Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the United States.
Despite the abundance of Chinese organisations in each of these countries, only a few will be successful in forming and leading a national organisation to represent and advocate for the Chinese diaspora in their respective countries. To bond together Chinese national groups from Western countries, each national body must adhere to common goals including the acceptance of core community values such as democracy, rule of law and human rights.
CV:Dr Anthony Pun OAM was born in Malaysia and completed his studies in Australia with a PhD in molecular biology from the University of NSW. He worked in St Vincent's Hospital Sydney as a Chief Medical Scientist and was involved with leukaemia and bone marrow transplantation research. Dr Pun then switched his career to administrative law spending 5 years as a member of the Immigration Review Tribunal and 3 years in the Administrative Decisions Tribunal. Dr Pun was president of the Australian Chinese Community Association of NSW 1989-1992, chair of the Ethnic Communities Council of NSW 1997, 2001-3, and current chair of the Chinese Australian Union and national president of the Chinese Community Council of Australia. Dr Pun is cognizant of government policies and has represented and advocated on the interests of ethnic communities in Australia, in particular, the interests of Chinese Australians. He is a keen advocate for multiculturalism in Australia and has been an Australia Day Ambassador since 2001.
Daphne Lowe-Kelley is a New Zealand born Chinese, whose father had to pay the poll tax in 1921. A graduate of Victoria University of Wellington and Wellington Teachers College, she has spent most of her adult life living and working in Australia and the United States. Daphne's interest in her Chinese ancestry and community was reinforced after her first visit to China in 1958. In addition to her volunteer work in Australian mainstream organisations, Daphne continues to play a very active role in the Chinese Australian community and is currently president of the Chinese Heritage Association of Australia, vice president of the Australian Chinese Community Association of NSW, Hon Secretary of the Chinese Community Council of Australia and an executive of the Chinese Women's Association of Australia.

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Title:When "Giving" Goes Bananas: The Case of Beijing Mandarin
Author:Robert Sanders
Abstract:When Beijing speakers whisper the rest of the country is likely to hear it on television, radio and in films. This is because the spoken language of Beijing serves as the foundation of Standard Mandarin, which in turn serves as the common linguistic glue holding the nation together. This presentation describes how the word "gei" has evolved in Beijing speech from a simple verb meaning "to give" into a marker seemingly capable at any one time of indicating the doer of an action, the recipient or beneficiary of the action, or even the person or object upon whom or which the action has been carried out. In other words, the roles of subject, direct object and indirect object in any given sentence are quite distinct from one another and "gei" is said to be quite free in its ability to indicate each of these roles. Therefore one is compelled to conclude that either the presence of "gei" represents nothing more than vacuous window dressing or its ability to indicate self-contradictory functions can only serve to render the particulars of any given sentence largely incomprehensible. Fortunately the truth is that the use of "gei" in Beijing Mandarin is in all instances very clear and that confusion never arises. Why this is so will be explained by examining data from transcripts of casual conversations recorded in Beijing in the 1980s.

CV:Robert Sanders is currently Senior Lecturer in Chinese at the University of Auckland. He has been teaching Chinese language and linguistics at the tertiary level for over twenty years, in the US, Japan and New Zealand. He is an Associate Editor of the ABC Comprehensive Chinese-English Dictionary and co-author of the first-year tertiary textbooks Fundamental Spoken Chinese and Fundamental Written Chinese.


Title:Recollections of An Architect & Art Collector
Author:Ron Sang
Abstract:Ron gave a Pecha Kucha presentation of his architectual works and his ceramics & art collection in the session "Visually Chinese - Artists in New Zealand" at 2.30pm on Saturday, 18 July 2009.
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Title:An introduction to innovative sources in Chinese overseas studies
Author:Teresita Ang See
Abstract:Chinese overseas studies or Ethnic Chinese studies have been eliciting greater attention in the past three decades. In recent years especially, the volume of publications and number of research studies, documentaries, and conferences have also increased phenomenally. In addition, research centers, institutes, libraries and museums dedicated to Chinese overseas studies have also grown in number. Dr. Leo Suryadinata, in his paper, will make an analysis of these studies, pointing out developments in this field as well as gaps that need to be filled up. My paper will focus more on the innovative ways of undertaking and pursuing Chinese overseas studies as well as the new and improved ways of presenting and sharing them with a wider audience. The extensive use of multi-media, websites in the internet, documentaries, plays and musicales, museums, exhibits and other tools of communication are also most effective in imparting knowledge and enhancing understanding about the diverse and multi-faceted ethnic Chinese communities in all parts of the globe.

The International Society for the Studies of Chinese Overseas (ISSCO), the World Confederation of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies (WCILCOS), other institutions such as the Chinese Heritage Center and Huayinet in Singapore, the Kaisa Heritage Center and the Bahay Tsinoy Museum of the Chinese in Philippine Life in the Philippines and the many university-based Chinese studies programs in Asia, Australia, New Zealand, USA, and Europe are likewise indicators of the greater importance given to ethnic Chinese studies. In China, the scholarship and research outputs have improved a lot in recent years due to easier access to sources and faster communication. This paper attempts to introduce these institutions, new sources and innovative methodologies in recent years that help to advance knowledge and understanding of ethnic Chinese communities in different parts of the world and provide a productive exchange of information and activities focused on ethnic Chinese.

CV:Ms. Teresita Ang See is Secretary-Treasurer of the International Society for the Studies of Chinese Overseas (ISSCO), President of Kaisa Heritage Foundation and visiting lecturer at the Ateneo de Manila University in the Philippines.

Please download Teresita's paper by using this link http://ohilo.org/TASee_goingbananas_KaiLuey.ppt
Title:Chinese language and culture have significant influence on the world
Author:Mervin Singham
Abstract:Mervin Singham in his role as Director of the Office of Ethnic Affairs presented these Opening Remarks at 9.00 am on Saturday, 18 July 2009
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Title:Local Dragons: The Contribution of Chinese Businesses to the Auckland Economy
Author:Paul Spoonley
Abstract:(Co-presented with Carina Meares)
Chinese businesses have long been part of Auckland's economy but increased immigration flows have seen significant changes in terms of the scale and variety of these businesses. This research, funded by the Asia: New Zealand Foundation, looks at the various dimensions - and impacts - of this activity. These include the growth of ethnic precincts; the suburbanisation of these activities (Meadowlands, Northcote); the cross-border (transnational) links that are an important part of these activities; the importance of Chinese networks in setting up and sustaining these businesses; whether any support is provided by New Zealand organisations; and whether cultural networks are an important part of doing business in Auckland. An additional question is how Auckland has reacted to a much more visible and diverse Chinese business sector.
CV:Paul Spoonley is Professor of Sociology at Massey University. He began his research career by looking at the reactions of gatekeepers in Auckland to the arrival of Pacific migrants in the 1970s. His PhD in the 1980s was on racism and political extremism in New Zealand. He is chair of the Asia-Pacific Migration Research Network, an initiative involving 16 countries in the region. He is the leader of the Integration of Immigrants Programme (2007-2012) which received $3.2 million to look at the experiences and strategies of immigrants, including Chinese. In the 2008-09 period, he is also involved in funded research on Chinese businesses (Asia-New Zealand Foundation) and sports and leisure organisations and meeting the needs of ethnic/immigrant minorities (ARPASS). Books that will appear in 2009 include Mata Toa. The Life and Times of Ranginui Walker (Penguin), New Zealand and International Migration (Massey University) and Exploring Society (Pearson).
Carina Meares is the Research Manager of the Integration of Immigrants Programme (2007-2012) which looks at the settlement experiences of migrants from India, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, the United Kingdom and China. Her recent PhD focused on the impact of gender on the migration biographies of South African migrants. She worked with Paul Spoonley on the Asia New Zealand-funded research on Chinese businesses in Auckland, upon which this presentation is based.
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Title:Responding to Superdiversity : A Research Agenda
Author:Paul Spoonley
Abstract:There is a significant and escalating need to understand the growing presence of Chinese communities, businesses, language and culture in New Zealand. A good evidence base is important in informing debates and contributing to decision-making. But for those of us involved in training the researchers, in funding the research or who take part in various policy debates, there are two important questions to be asked - the first is whether there is currently capacity to provide information, and if not, what needs to be done; the second is what model of research is most appropriate.

This presentation will be made in the Plenary Session "Chinese Today" at 9.30 am on Sunday, 19 July 2009.
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Title:Diversity Dividend : The Chinese Economic Contribution
Author:Paul Spoonley
Abstract:This presentation was made in the session "Cracking the Glass Ceiling" at 1.30 pm on Sunday, 19 July 2009.
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Title:Chinese Migration in a Globalizing World
Author:Leo Suryadinata
Abstract:Since the end of the last century, roughly 80% of new Chinese migrants have gone to developed and industrialized countries such as USA, Australia and New Zealand and 20% to Southeast Asia. This talk addresses Chinese migration generally and Chinese migrants in Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand in particular, focusing on their socio-economic problems and process of adaptation.

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Title:Ancestor God, Local God and Chinese Overseas
Author:Chee-Beng Tan
Abstract:Many Chinese overseas in Southeast Asia worship Guangze Zunwang, and Fengshan Si the original temple in Shishan, NanÇTMan County, Southern Fujian, attracts many worshippers from Southeast Asia. Nearby is the ancestral homeland of the Ye-surname people who trace their ancestral origin to Shishan. To these Chinese in Southeast Asia both their ancestor god and Guangze Zunwang are important deities which form the ritual focus of the people. This paper discusses the significance of such deities to the Chinese overseas and in the transnational networks between China and the Chinese in Southeast Asian. It illustrates that Chinese popular religion, where it is practiced, has important local organizational functions as well as facilitates the perpetuation of transnational networks between Chinese overseas and China.

CV:Tan Chee-Beng(Ph.D., Cornell University) is Professor at the Department of Anthropology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. His major publications include The Baba of Melaka (1988), Chinese Overseas: Comparative Cultural Issues (2004), as co-editor, The Chinese in Malaysia (2000), Changing Chinese Foodways in Asia (2001), Food and Foodways in Asia (2007), The World of Soy (2008), and as editor, Southern Fujian: Reproduction of Traditions in Post-Mao China (2006), Chinese Transnational Networks (2007).
E-mail address: cbtan@cuhk.edu.hk
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Title:Chinese in the Pacific
Author:James To
Abstract:Overseas Chinese (OC) are well placed to promote China's interests abroad. From small shops and restaurants to multi-million dollar mining ventures, there are now approximately 3000 state and private Chinese companies working in the tourist, clothing, forestry and fishing industries, with over $6 billion invested in the Pacific. There are also estimated to be tens of thousands of OC throughout the region - many of whom which are considered to be 'new' migrants.
This presentation draws on primary source data, photography and video gathered during fieldwork around the Solomon Islands, Fiji and Tonga. It illustrates the impact of OC migration and the new OC demographic in the Pacific. In particular, it examines the 2006 ethnic riots in Honiara and Nuku'alofa during which OC were actively targeted. Why were they targeted? What can be done to prevent such events from happening again?

CV:James is currently completing his doctoral dissertation in political science at the University of Canterbury, examining the overseas Chinese diaspora.
He has spent a year in Beijing at Tsinghua University studying Mandarin and a year in Japan teaching English. James has participated in various leadership forums (including Asia:NZ Young Leaders Network, Dragon 100, Sasakawa Young Leaders Fellowship and of course the NZCA Leadership Development Conference). He is also a representative of various community groups and organizations (including the NZCA, Lions Club and Christchurch Guangdong Association).


Title:Chinese Canadian and First Nations: 150 Years of Shared Experiences
Author:Hayne Wai
Abstract:On the 150th anniversary of British Columbia, the Chinese Canadian Historical Society of BC (CCHS) believed it was timely to commence a closer look at the shared experiences between Chinese Canadians and First Nations peoples. This would be of significance to all British Columbians, whether First Nations/Aborginal/Métis, immigrants, Canadian-born, Chinese, and non-Chinese alike; and would provide a more inclusive perspective on these communities, rather than looking at each one in isolation.
The Chinese, like other settlers, arrived in lands used and occupied by First Nations for many generations. While most documentaries have focused on Chinese in gold mining, the building of the railroad, the fishing and agricultural industries, and the development of Chinatowns in Victoria and Vancouver, there is much more to the history of BC. The Chinese were also in contact with First Nations peoples, sharing experiences of exclusion, racism and perseverance. These two groups had and continue to have social relationships, inter-marriage, and economic interactions throughout the province.
As past president of CCHS and as a sessional instructor in the Faculty of Education, UBC, the presenter will showcase the work of the project team including two short videos and relate the discussion to the larger framework of Chinese Canadian identities in British Columbia.

CV:Hayne Wai, B.A. UBC, M.A. Queen's, P.D.P. SFU, is a sessional instructor at the Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, and has also taught at the School of Social work, UBC. He is past president of the Chinese Canadian Historical Society of BC (CCHS), and has published on the history of Vancouver's Chinatown and Strathcona communities. He is a co-author in CCHS's publications on family history, Finding Memories, Tracing Routes, Chinese Canadian Family Histories and Eating Stories, a Chinese Canadian and Aboriginal Potluck. Hayne previously worked for the BC government's Ministry of Multiculturalism as policy manager assisting the private, public and non-profit sectors in promoting culturally responsive services and policies and anti-racism programs.

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Title:Chinese New Migrants and the Formation of New Chinatown in Tokyo
Author:Wei Wang
Abstract:The first wave of Chinese new migrants had not strongly been felt in Japan until 1980s when large number of mainland Chinese from Shanghai and Fujian flooded into Tokyo and other cities of the country. The inflow pattern, however, has quietly been changed over the past 15 years with more and more Dongbei Chinese moving into Japan from the Northeastern provinces of China, Liaoning in particular. The latest statistics released by the Tokyo municipal authorities in September 2008 shows that the Chinese have now become the largest foreign migrant group in the city, amounting to 140,105, followed by the North Korean migrants and the South Korean migrants. With the increasingly inflow of Chinese new migrants, a number of sojourning Chinese residential quarters have gradually emerged in areas such as the Sinjyuku Station, Okubo Station, Sinokubo Station, Kitaku Akabane Station, Edokawaku, Kotoku, Adachiku, as well as Adachiku. Aside from 10 Chinese newspapers and 4 Chinese TVs, service sector particularly targeting at Chinese new migrants came into being in the Chinese community, including different Chinese restaurants, groceries, beauty parlours, internet bars, teahouses, Chinese private schools and musical schools. In other words, a new Chinese town with a sizable Chinese community has gradually formed in Japan's capital Tokyo over the past two decades. Based on the fieldwork conducted in Tokyo and the materials collected from both public and private channels, this paper looks into the formation and development of this newly emerged Chinatown in Tokyo with preliminary observation and comments in the hope to provide a new case for the comparative study of Chinese Overseas.

CV:Dr Wei Wang is a full professor at National University of Kagawa, Japan. Her research covers Chinese Overseas and the transformation of Chinese culture and performing arts in Chinese communities overseas. She is the author of Nihon Kaky┼Ź ni okeru dent┼Ź no saihen to esunishiti (Reestablishing Tradition among Chinese in Japan: A Study on the Festivities and Performing Arts), Tokyo: Fukyosha, 2001, and Sugao no tyukagai (A Sketch on the Chinatowns in Japan), Tokyo: Yosensha, 2003.

Title:Border, place & identity in the remaking of expatriate communities in Hong Kong
Author:Cangbai Wang
Abstract:(Co-authors Wong Siu-lun and Victor Zheng)
Hong Kong's expatriate community, dominated by British government officials, administrators, corporation executives and professionals, has diminished since it was handed over to China in 1997. However, in the past five years, we witness a gradual growth of expatriate community in Hong Kong. Apart from domestic workers from Philippine and other Southeast Asian countries, most are professionals and their families from Western countries who come /return to Hong Kong for employment purpose. This is an interesting phenomenon not only because it has altered Hong Kong's migration landscape that deserves timely revisit, but also raises theoretical questions about border, place and identity in transnational spaces.
This paper aims to explore changing relationship between border, place and identity using the British and other expatriates in Hong Kong as a case. Drawing on ideas on place and space proposed by Henri Lefebvre (1991), Doreen Massey (1994, 1995), Stephan Feuchtwang (2004) and some others, this paper foregrounds the postcolonial transformation of border between post-colonizer (UK) and post-colonized (Hong Kong), and look at how mobility is shaped by individuals' internal perception of place and belonging, and how professional migrants negotiate their perceptions and behaviour relative to their changing positions in the complex politico-legal relationship between the UK, Hong Kong and China. Finding of study makes up an ideal case to be compared with research of transmigrants in other metropolises.
This paper is based on interviews with 20 British and other expatriate professionals in Hong Kong that forms parts of a larger on-going project funded by Hong Kong Research Council.

CV:Dr.Wang Cangbai is a Senior lecturer in contemporary Chinese Studies, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Westminster,London, UK. Dr Wang has a PhD in Sociology from the University of Hong Kong & a MA in History from Peking University. He wrote a book in 2006 entitled "Life is Elsewhere: Stories of the Indonesian Chinese in Hong Kong".

Professor Wong Siu-lun is currently Professor and Director of the Centre of Asian Studies. His research interest includes: Chinese entrepreneurship and culture, migration and Chinese diaspora, social indicators and social development: Hong Kong and Macao.

Dr. Victor Zheng is currently Research Assistant Professor of the Centre of Asian Studies, HKU. His research interest includes: Chinese family enterprises and inheritance, Hong Kong history and society, social indicators and social development: Hong Kong and Macao.

Title:Manipulating the Loyalty
Author:Joan S H Wang
Abstract:Chinese Americans and the Taiwan's canned mushroom export, 1960-1980. The paper employs a viewpoint of political economy and examines the interaction between Chinese American identity formation and the strategy of Taiwan's anti-communist policy toward Chinese overseas. In the process of the Korean War against Communist China, American government banned its trade relations with China, which provided a great opportunity for importing the Taiwanese goods. Soon in America, the processed foods and handcrafts previously imported from China were replaced by those made in Taiwan, among them canned mushrooms having a vital part. Starting from the 1960s, mushroom became an important ingredient in the diet of American people. It thus played a key role in the foreign trade of Taiwan with America. As a matter of fact, Taiwan took the lead for the imported canned mushrooms in America for nearly two decades. The paper, therefore, sets its focus on the period from 1960 to 1980. How to distribute these canned mushrooms became an art of maneuver between Taiwanese government and Chinese American merchants. The export pattern of Taiwan's canned mushrooms used to take up a quota system for distribution agency. The agents in America were dominated by either big white American or Japanese food companies. This meant that many Chinese restaurant proprietors had to deal with white American or Japanese businessmen, instead of their own compatriots in Taiwan. The pattern agitated many Chinese American merchants. They protested to Taiwan's government, accusing of the way of monopolization and complaining about the high standard of qualified agency. In the meantime, these Chinese American merchants, following the atmosphere in American society where the Cold War generated panic of communism, pursued the anti-communist Taiwan's government for their own interests in the name of loyalty to their motherland. Trying to rope in overseas Chinese to its side, the government manipulated the canned mushrooms as rewards to those Chinese Americans resonating to its anti-communist policy. Once the United States thawed its relationship with Communist China, some Chinese American merchants kept pace with their host county and thus offended the anti-communist policy of Taiwan's government. Loyalty constitutes a persistent dilemma for overseas Chinese.
CV:Joan S. H. Wang is Professor of History Department and Graduate Institute of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language, Program of Overseas Chinese Education and Studies, both at National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (jwang@ntnu.edu.tw). She is the author of The Racism and Gender: The Experience of Chinese American Males before World War II (2006) and The Predicament of Transnational Migration: the Ethnic Relations between Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans, 1885-1937 (2008) (both in Chinese), as well as articles published in American Studies International and The Journal of American Ethnic History.
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Title:The Unique History of Chinese in Cuba
Author:Mary-Alice Waters
Abstract:Chinese immigration to Cuba was greater in proportion to population than to any other country on the American continent, including the United States. Chinese came originally as indentured labourers, brought by the Spanish colonists from 1847 on, to supplement the dwindling supply of African slaves. Later arrivals included Chinese labourers first brought to the west of the United States to build railroads, who then emigrated to Cuba hoping for better lives.
The paper will examine how Chinese have been able to play a prominent role in the social and political history of Cuba. In the 19th century, this included their resistance against slave-like conditions on the plantations and their exemplary role in the wars of independence against Spain. In the 20th century, it included struggles against race discrimination and participation in the fight against the Batista dictatorship that led to the 1959 socialist revolution.
Why did so many Chinese-Cubans join the struggle led by Fidel Castro against Batista's rule, and then the battles to defend the new revolution against attempts by the U.S. government to overturn it? How did the new government take steps to combat the discrimination faced by Chinese and blacks in Cuba prior to 1959, and what measures have been taken since to combat this legacy?
How is this history reflected today in the pride that Cubans of Chinese descent have in their Chinese culture and heritage? How are Chinese-Cubans and their organisations working to preserve Chinese traditions, art, and language, including steps to restore Havana's Chinatown?
The paper will explore why the 1959 revolution in Cuba opened the way for those of Chinese descent to play a full and equal part in the country's social and political life, including in many high leadership positions in its government and armed forces. It will compare how this unique experience contrasts with that of Chinese elsewhere in the Americas and other countries.
CV:Mary-Alice Waters is the author or editor of numerous books, including more than a dozen titles on Cuba. She is resident in New York.
Waters conducted the oral history interviews for, edited, and wrote the introduction to the book "Our History Is Still Being Written: The Story of Three Chinese-Cuban Generals in the Cuban Revolution". She will draw on her original research in preparing this book, ongoing work with its authors, and her firsthand knowledge gained from frequent and regular visits to Cuba. She has addressed many university meetings and classes on this subject over the past several years in North America and elsewhere.
"Our History Is Still Being Written" originally appeared in English and Spanish in late 2005. A Chinese-language edition was published in China in 2008.

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Title:Overseas Chinese in a New Global World
Author:Elizabeth (Libby) Wong
Abstract:The speaker traces the ever changing status of overseas Chinese against the background of historical events in China and the Western world.
Looking to the future, against the background of the recent credit crunch, experienced internationally, she highlights the importance of strategic partnership between the Chinese and the rest of the world to bring about peace and prosperity.
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Title:Social Network and Chinese Student Immigrants in Singapore
Author: Jean Ching Ching Yim
Abstract:With the development of bilateral relations between China and Singapore, a huge number of Chinese students from PRC have chosen this island state as their study-cum-migration destination. According to the Singapore official statistics, each year more than 10,000 students from mainland China would be studying in the country. After their graduation, roughly one third of these Chinese students would stay to serve the country as requested by the Singapore government policy, while others would either return to China or move to other Western countries to pursue advanced degree. Most of the students who chosen to stay behind would eventually become new Chinese migrants.
Based on the preliminary fieldwork conducted in Singapore, this paper aims at exploring the social network and its role in the formation and development of the Chinese student immigrant community of Singapore. What kind of social network can be identified in facilitating the inflow of Chinese students? And how such network is employed during their study period? How social network help them in searching job after their graduation? In terms of the strong ties and the weak ties, which one functions more significantly in their overseas life? What kind of role is being played by the Chinese media and organizations? Questions listed above will be tried to be addressed in this paper in order to tease out the characteristics and functions of the social networks, and to better understand the new Chinese migrant community in Singapore.

CV:Miss Jean Yim is a Ph.D. candidate at Centre of Asian Studies, the University of Hong Kong. Her Master thesis looks at new migration waves from Fujian and social transformation in local Qiaoxiang. She is currently studying the formation and changes of Chinese new migrants overseas, as well as their relations with homeland and host societies.

Title:Finding the Dragon Within
Author:Koreen Young
Abstract:Koreen talked about her 2005 NZCA Winter experience and the impact it had on the way she values and appreciates her Chinese ethnicity and its culture.
This presentation was given in the "Falling Leaves Return Home" session at 11.00 am on Sunday, 19 July 2009.
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Title:Returning to China in the 1950s to 1970s
Author:Cyril Young
Abstract:Cyril talked about his personal life experience of a New Zealand-born Chinese in China during the significant changes that occurred from the fifties to the seventies. This presentation was given at 11.00am on Sunday, 19 July 2009 in the "Falling Leaves Return Home" session.
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Title:The Coming 30 years - China Going Global
Author:Yit - Seng Yow
Abstract:This paper looks into the development of China on the occasion of her 60th anniversary.
Nine parameters, governance, diplomacy, GDP, military, natural resources, information resources, financial reserves, human resources and technology were used to sketch the "Comprehensive National Strength" in 1949.
The initial 30 years of headaches, heartaches and frustrations, when the young Nation faced various trials and tribulations were briefly described. These were the years when China was in isolation.
After the death of Mao Zedong, the rise of Deng Xiaoping herald the second 30 years period, beginning in 1978. The years from 1978 to 2009 was described as "The World zooming into and discovering China".
The phenomenal success of China during this 30 years of reform and opening up were discussed. Various performance indicators were listed, pointing to the emergence of China as an economic and political power. The role of ethnic Chinese Worldwide was highlighted.
The new scenario was viewed from the perspective of 3 major events in 2008, the Sichuan earthquake, the Olympics and the Space Walk.
An overall evaluation of the leading nations in the World using "Comprehensive National Strength" by the Chinese Academy of Social Science was looked into.
The coming 30 years, when China will be going Global was discussed. Various indications of the Chinese globalization was looked into, ranging from the economy to culture, from currency to the people themselves.
A review of the same nine criteria used at the beginning of the paper revealed that the Chinese have come a long way since 1949. It has transformed itself from being the "Sick man of East Asia" to one of the Global leaders today.
CV:Dr. Yit-Seng YOW is an Australian author, focusing on issues pertaining to Chinese culture and the ethnic Chinese. He is the author of several books including "Chinese Dimensions - their roots, mindset and psyche", and contributed to various magazines including Chung Wah Newsletter (Australia), Huaren Emagazine, SL Magazine (U.K.), etc. He is also the coordinator of Huaren.org, a web-based, world-wide ethnic Chinese organization.

Title:Chinese Culture and Dental Behaviour in Wellington
Author:Wei Zhang
Abstract:Chinese migrants bring their Chinese culture and Chinese beliefs to New Zealand. The acculturation process can be long and may affect their access to dental services. Analysis of recent research suggests a pattern whereby the greater the acculturation, the greater the use of dental services. Four aspects of Chinese culture are highlighted: wrong perception of the cause of caries as 'Qi'; intention to seek self-treatment; a preference for keeping teeth against dentists' advice; and complex attitudes towards New Zealand dentists. These issues require dentists to be culturally aware when dealing with Chinese patients. Because existing models fail to capture the complexities of Chinese culture, a dynamic model is proposed to help dental practitioners to understand Chinese migrants' dental behaviours. Chinese culture also has implications for researchers who want to carry out research with the Chinese community.

CV:Bachelor in Medicine (Beijing University, PR China), Masters of Public Policy with merit (Victoria University of Wellington).
She has worked as statistical analyst at Statistics New Zealand and a policy analyst of the Dental Council of New Zealand. She is also the Chinese Secretary of the New Zealand Chinese Association.

Title:Professional Mainlanders in Hong Kong: Profile, Prospect and Problem
Author:Victor Zheng
Abstract:(With co-authors Wong Siu-lun & Wang Cangbai)
After the handover, the Hong Kong SAR government revised its immigration policy in absorbing talented and professional immigrants around the globe to supplement its human resources pool. Professional Chinese mainlanders become one of the categories that were allowed to enter. Within a short period of time, the number of this group of professionals increased drastically and gradually become one of the influential groups in Hong Kong. This paper tries to draw a brief profile on this group of people, cross-examine why they come to Hong Kong, problems faced when they first arrived, and more importantly to evaluate the impacts they bring to the local society such as competition for job opportunity and fear of forming another powerful group that are more pro-Chinese-mainland.

CV:Dr. Victor Zheng is currently Research Assistant Professor of the Centre of Asian Studies, HKU. His research interest includes: Chinese family enterprises and inheritance, Hong Kong history and society, social indicators and social development: Hong Kong and Macao.

Professor Wong Siu-lun is currently Professor and Director of the Centre of Asian Studies, HKU. His research interest includes: Chinese entrepreneurship and culture, migration and Chinese diaspora, social indicators and social development: Hong Kong and Macao.

Dr. Wang Cangbai is currently senior lecturer of the University of Westminster, UK. His research interest includes: Indonesian Chinese, professional migrants and population policy.



Papers from other conferences:
Diverse Bananas, Global Dragons International Conference (2014) 2014
Rising Dragons, Soaring Bananas International Conference (2009) 2009
Bananas NZ Going Global Conference (2007) 2007
Going Bananas Multiple Identities Forum (2006) 2006
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Bananas (2005) 2005